I wish to understand why I do not have the Teacher and Supporter badges. I have already cast a few up votes, and my first answer did earn up votes on this site. Has this something to do with the fact that the question and my answer to it was migrated from security.stackexchange.com?
The badges are not awarded immediately after an action, but only when some internal job runs over the database and recognizes that you deserve one (this happens in different intervals for each badge, but I suppose at least once a day).
Looking at your profile now, you've got both badges.