The only real combined "cryptography + programming" curriculum I know are the cryptopals challenges. These may be useful, but I don't know how particularly useful they are for learning programming from 0 background.
They're not really particularly useful for learning programming at any step actually (except that they require programming, and the more you program generically the better you'll get at it).
In general, I would suggest taking some intro to programming course (or perhaps finding someone's syllabus and doing all of the exercises).
As a mathematician you might find the theoretical side of things somewhat easier to understand than most (so might find reading books on algorithms to be useful for your programming), but that probably isn't needed at first, so you might as well ignore it.
If you want a textbook to supplement cryptopals (you probably should), Introduction to Modern Cryptography by Katz and Lindell is a relatively popular (advanced undergraduate) level book.
You'll have to pick a programming language to do your learning in. I don't know what particular role you, want to work with, but cryptography/security work tends to be fairly low-level. C is a pretty safe bet, but can be somewhat more difficult for beginners than something like python. That being said, if you want a minimal amount of time spent learning, directly learning C probably makes the most sense.